20 years in the reign of Mohammed VI .. How the Authority dealt with human rights? | Politics and Economy -

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Among those who believe that the "New Testament" is a break with the past by bold decisions and huge strategies that changed the shape of the country, and those who emphasize that the transformations witnessed by Morocco since 1999 have not yet lived up to the aspirations of citizens, and did not achieve the demands of the opposition and independent audiences in Morocco, There are many opinions about what happened during the twenty years of King Mohammed VI.

The human rights field is the biggest issue of disagreement, but almost everyone acknowledges that the era of gross violations of human rights has passed and the country no longer hosts secret detention camps where the detainees die slowly, such as "Zemmart" or enforced disappearances where the fate of the opponents ends. On the extent of the State's commitment to improving the human rights situation, especially those relating to freedom of opinion and expression, individual freedoms and sometimes even social rights.

Difficulty of beginnings

Mohammed VI received a heavy legacy in the wake of the death of his father, Hassan II, from the confirmation of the break with the years of bullets, the opening up of greater freedom of expression and the announcement of new plans to review laws affecting social groups. Recognition of their right and financial compensation – despite the impunity of the torturers – and the 2004 Family Code, which recognized a number of women's rights. The press also lived in its golden era in Morocco. The independent press, which spoke of highly sensitive files, Linked directly to minors.

König Mohammed VI von Marokko (AP)

Mohammed VI in 2002

However, this openness was not purely for the purpose of human rights, according to rights activist Ahmed Asid: "The opening was deliberate and prepared by the late King Hassan II with a view to renewing the legitimacy of the property, especially after the years of bullets." In order to "renew the legitimacy of the throne," Asid added in an interview with – Arab, five files were opened to the young king to confirm the difference of his personality: autonomy in the Sahara file, cultural diversity, especially recognition of Amazigh, , As well as family code and cut with lead years.

However, Yunus Dafkir, the editor of the daily newspaper Al-Jadida, believes that these "reconciliations" are not only related to the smooth maintenance of the throne, but that the date of the events was from 2004 onwards, years after the throne was transferred to the new king. "It was normal for King Mohammed VI to differ from his predecessor, because he belonged to a backward generation, he had a different composition, and he received power in a very different political and cultural environment than the one that marked his father's period.

The beginning of authoritarianism?

However, with the terrorist incidents of 16 May 2003, observers began to speak of a decline in human rights. Human rights organizations condemned what they considered "illegal practices" against more than 1,500 people arrested after the events under the Terrorism Act, In its 2004 report, there have been violations, including during periods of custody (detention pending investigation).

Marokko Casablanca Bombenanschlag auf Restaurant Casa de Espana 2003 (picture-alliance / dpa / EPA / K. Shilaki)

The attacks, which have not been formally adopted, left 45 people dead

This situation has been partially confined to other areas, especially in the independent press, some of whose titles suffered during these years narrowing, mainly targeted by their share of advertising revenues, and even reached trials that ended in heavy fines, which led to the bankruptcy of some of the journalistic trials, And "Nishan".

Ahmed Asid points out that the post-2003 phase was a continuation of the years preceding it and showed a real will to change from the palace. However, there were some signs of a gradual return to authoritarianism. Demands the human rights movement to open the way for a new constitution.

Morocco has witnessed a departure from the democratic authority in the 2002 elections by appointing a first nonpartisan minister and then a major political reluctance in the 2007 elections that resulted in a government that was ousted by early elections after the fall of the Arab Spring.

In Davar's view, the terrorist attack in 2003 was a shock to the community, especially to the security and judicial services, which did not accumulate experience in dealing with similar cases, and no tools were available in this area. "The period of Mohammed VI in which the protection of human rights is a strategic option for the state, although there are violations and violations, it is certainly not a state policy as much as isolated cases or problems in implementation.

What does the present say?

Morocco was able to overcome the storms of the "Arab Spring" with minimal damage when the king announced a new constitution, the first in his reign. The year 2011 saw a clear rise in freedom of opinion and expression, especially with the beginning of the golden era of social networks. Of human rights to a national council, and the public media witnessed a breakthrough in the political debate.

Flash-Galerie Marokko König Mohammed VI (picture-alliance / dpa)

The king addressed the people on March 9, 2011, announcing new reforms

But opinions differ between those who believe that Morocco has continued the same approach, and those who see a human rights reaction from the end of 2013. Indeed, Eisid believes that the "Arab Spring" was a disaster for Morocco, as authoritarianism took advantage of its subsequent repercussions in order to try to return to what period Before 1999.

International human rights organizations and a Moroccan woman criticized the state, the trials of the rural mobility detainees, the detainees of the protests in the town of Jaradah (they were released with royal pardons), complaints of refusal to license human rights activities, and the presence of journalists and human rights activists behind bars or trials Some of them on charges of harming state security, at a time when the Ministry of State in charge of human rights, the first government report on human rights during the last eight years, and the achievements of Morocco "achievements" and "gains".

Sanctions yesterday in the cloak today!

There are those who refuse to link recent arrests to freedom of opinion and expression or even the right to protest. "There is a misreading of what is happening because human rights have become a refuge for implementing political agendas," says the same spokesman. "There is no decision to prevent demonstrations, and cases where sentences have been issued are cases in which some of the demonstrators committed acts under criminal law." He gives the example of the file of the detainees in the file of the detainees "Rural mobility", as the elimination of files based on reality To sabotage and set fire and others as saying.

However, Ahmed Asid goes to another opinion, the authority has abandoned the methods of old restrictions such as forced disappearance and systematic torture, instead resorted to new methods whose essence is to go to the private life of those who show sharp monetary positions, and to bring them before the judiciary with moral files or arrest them for other charges Under the sections of the Criminal Code, so that the trial would not be portrayed as a political trial or a matter of freedom of expression. An example of this is given by Nasir al-Zafzafi, the leader of rural mobility, who addressed the king in some of his direct videos in a disrespectful manner, but faced other charges before the judiciary for covering up the real reasons for his arrest.

– Ismail Azzam

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