After two decades of rule .. Mohammed VI reformer reserved | Politics and Economy -

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On July 23, 1999, the regular programs of state radio and television were cut off and verses from the Koran were broadcast in the first minutes before the official announcement to prepare citizens for the news of the death of King Hassan II. On the day of his funeral, thousands of Moroccans took to the streets to take a final look at the king's coffin, which was covered with a black cloth embroidered with verses from the Koran.

The funeral of Hassan II was accompanied by many heads of state of the world, including former US President Bill Clinton, former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and the late Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat..

A few days later, on July 30, 1990, Muhammad the eldest son of Hassan II assumed the throne. In a gold-colored cart carried by four authentic horses, the young king went to the Grand Mosque of Fez to perform Friday prayers there. In his first speech on the throne, the new king distanced himself from the political legacy of his father.

The new king added at least some aesthetic touches to the traditions of Moroccan monarchy. The ceremonial ceremonies that were held at important official events were always marked by some foot. According to the Moroccan historian Nabil Moline, today's rituals are not traditional in any way but dating back to the 1930s. These celebrations were then included, to give an impression The continuity of preserving the history of the Kingdom.

However, from a political point of view, ownership in Morocco is proceeding according to the requirements of the present. Moroccan sultans and kings They were always aware of the problem of adapting to the times, says Moroccan journalist Ali Anouzla in an interview with him : "In all the issues that have moved public opinion in Morocco, they have reconciled tradition and modernity, but without being politically serious, because their priority is to preserve the status quo. "

End of the grip rule

Does King Mohammed VI also follow this policy? During the 20 years of his rule, the king made various updates within his own country. Ostensibly, the king presents Morocco as an open country. In this context, the researcher of Islamic studies Sonia Hijazi, in an interview with : "Today, the country is far from the policy of governance with an iron hand as it was in the sixties and seventies and eighties of the last century." "Human rights violations no longer exist as they did during the reign of Hassan II," adds the deputy director of the Center for Contemporary East Berlin.

Marokko Ali Anouzla (-)

Moroccan journalist Ali Anouzla

"However, we note that there are violations under Mohammed VI, for example, against journalists detained for their views," Hijazi said. That legal arbitrariness is no longer as great as it was during the reign of Hassan II, but the progress that was initially reliable did not materialize ".

The fact-finding commission set up by Mohammed VI in 2004, which was aimed at uncovering human rights abuses committed during his father's reign, disappointed many Moroccans. Although the black points of previous institutions have been unveiled, those responsible for human rights violations have not been held accountable. "King Mohammed VI may be more liberal in his mind than his father, but he rules as his traditional father, who clings to rituals and traditions," says Anuzla.

King on the path of reform

The failure of the Commission of Inquiry did not prevent the King from promoting the modernization of his country. The new Family Code, which had been in force since 2004, had promoted the status of women within society and the equality of the sexes in form. The new law granted women the right to decide to terminate marriage, which was the right of men only. Instead of clerics, the decision to divorce was also made by judges.

The king also cares about cultural diversity. The Constitution of 2011 recognized that the national identity of the fabric includes several regional identities. Since then, the Moroccan Amazigh language has been adopted as one of the official languages ​​in the country.

With these reforms, the king had empathy and thus supported the liberal bourgeoisie. But this is not immune to the Islamic opposition, nor to its impact on young people who feel marginalized economically and politically from society.

A divided society

A number of those who have been disappointed with the reforms, not a little in the country. Morocco is a divided society, according to researcher Sonia Hijazi: "During the past ten years, the purchasing power of the poor has declined dramatically, and the country suffers from other problems."

According to a study by the Friedrich Ebert Foundation, many young people are critical of corruption in the health sector, which leads to differential treatment of patients. The education sector is also criticized. "The country is divided: on the one hand, there is a large population in the cities and on the other hand, the number of areas benefiting from development is still slightly, where in some areas young people have to walk five hours to school."

The country's social problems have long been addressed openly. The country and its institutions are under intense pressure for reform. The king can not deny it, says Ali Anouzla, "Moroccan society, a young society. Update ".

Kirsten Kneep

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